|Jihong Yu||Simon Fraser University, Canada|
|Wei Gong||Simon Fraser University, Canada|
|Jiangchuan Liu||Simon Fraser University, Canada|
|Lin Chen||The University of Paris-Sud, France|
Searching for a particular group of tags in an RFID system is a key service in such important Internet-of-Things applications as inventory management. When the system scale is large with a massive number of tags, deterministic search can be prohibitively expensive, and probabilistic search has been advocated, seeking a balance between reliability and time efficiency. Given a failure probability 1 O(K) , where K is the number of tags, state-of-the-art solutions have achieved a time cost of O(K log K) through multi-round hashing and verification. Further improvement however faces a critical bottleneck of repetitively verifying each individual target tag in each round. In this paper, we present a novel Tree-based Tag Search (TTS) that approaches O(K) through batched verification. TTS smartly hashes multiple tags into each internal tree node and adaptively controls the node degrees. It conducts bottom-up search to verify tags group by group with the number of groups decreasing rapidly. We derive the optimal hash code length and node degrees to accommodate hash collisions, and demonstrate the superiority of TTS through both theoretical analysis and extensive simulations. In particular, we show that, with increasing reliability demand and system size, TTS achieves an even higher performance gain, making it a highly scalable solution.