|Tianming Zhao||Binghamton University, USA|
|Jian Liu||WINLAB, Rutgers University, USA|
|Yan Wang||SUNY at Binghamton, USA|
|Hongbo Liu||Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, USA|
|Yingying Chen||Rutgers University, USA|
This paper subverts the traditional understanding of Photoplethysmography (PPG) and opens up a new direction of the utility of PPG in commodity wearable devices, especially in the domain of human computer interaction of fine-grained gesture recognition. We demonstrate that it is possible to leverage the widely deployed PPG sensors in wrist-worn wearable devices to enable finger-level gesture recognition, which could facilitate many emerging human-computer interactions (e.g., sign-language interpretation and virtual reality). While prior solutions in gesture recognition require dedicated devices (e.g., video cameras or IR sensors) or leverage various signals in the environments (e.g., sound, RF or ambient light), this paper introduces the first PPG-based gesture recognition system that can differentiate fine-grained hand gestures at finger level using commodity wearables. Our innovative system harnesses the unique blood flow changes in a user's wrist area to distinguish the user's finger and hand movements. The insight is that hand gestures involve a series of muscle and tendon movements that compress the arterial geometry with different degrees, resulting in significant motion artifacts to the blood flow with different intensity and time duration. By leveraging the unique characteristics of the motion artifacts to PPG, our system can accurately extract the gesture-related signals from the significant background noise (i.e., pulses), and identify different minute finger-level gestures. Extensive experiments are conducted with over 3600 gestures collected from 10 adults. Our prototype study using two commodity PPG sensors can differentiate nine finger-level gestures from American Sign Language with an average recognition accuracy over 88%, suggesting that our PPG-based finger-level gesture recognition system is promising to be one of the most critical components in sign language translation using wearables.