Chase++: Fountain-Enabled Fast Flooding In Asynchronous Duty Cycle Networks

Authors:
Zhichao Cao Tsinghua University, P.R. China
Jiliang Wang Tsinghua University, P.R. China
Daibo Liu University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, P.R. China
Xin Miao Tsinghua University, P.R. China
Qiang Ma Tsinghua University, P.R. China
Xufei Mao Tsinghua University, P.R. China

Abstract:

Due to limited energy supply on many Internet of Things (IoT) devices, asynchronous duty cycle radio management is widely adopted to save energy. Flooding is a critical way to quickly disseminate system parameters to adapt diverse network requirements. Capture effect enabled concurrent broadcast is appealing to accelerate network flooding in asynchronous duty cycle networks. However, when the length of flooding payload is long, due to frequently unsatisfied capture effect construction, the performance of concurrent broadcast is far from efficient. Intuitively, senders can send short packet that contains partial flooding payload to keep the efficiency of concurrent broadcast. In practice, we still face two challenges. Considering packet loss, a receiver needs an effective way to recover entire flooding payload from several received packets as soon as possible. Moreover, considering diverse channel state of different senders, how a sender chooses the optimal packet length to guarantee high channel utilization in a lightweight way is not easy. In this paper, we propose Chase++ a Fountain code based concurrent broadcast control layer to enable fast flooding in asyn-chronous duty cycle networks. Chase++ uses Fountain code to alleviate the negative influence of the continuous loss of a certain part of flooding payload. Moreover, Chase++ adaptively selects packet length with the local estimation of channel utilization. Specifically, Chase++ partitions long payload into several short payload blocks, which are further encoded into many encoded payload blocks by Fountain code. Then, with temporal and spatial features of the sampled RSS (received signal strength) sequence, a sender estimates the number of concurrent senders. Finally, according to the estimated number of concurrent senders, the sender determines the optimal number of encoded payload blocks in a packet and assembles the encoded payload blocks as lots of packets. Then, concurrent broadcast layer continuously transmits these packets. Receivers can recover original flooding payload after several independent encoded payload blocks are collected. We implement Chase++ in TinyOS with TelosB nodes. We further evaluate Chase++ on local testbed with 50 nodes and Indriya testbed with 95 nodes. The improvement of network flooding speed can reach 23.6% and 13.4%, respectively.

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