|Yongmin Zhang||University of Victoria, Canada|
|Jiayi Chen||University of Victoria, Canada|
|Lin Cai||University of Victoria, Canada|
|Jianping Pan||University of Victoria, Canada|
Connected electric vehicles (EVs) are a key component of future intelligent and green transportation systems, and the penetration of EVs depends on convenient and cost-effective charging services. In addition to being charged at home or on parking lots, a charging network is needed for EVs right off the road. This paper first focuses on the optimal charging network design for charging service providers, considering the time-varying and location-dependent demands from vehicles and constraints of power grids. To optimize the charging station locations and the number of chargers in each station, we first model the coverage area of each possible location to estimate the dynamic charging requirements of EVs. Then, we formulate the problem as profit maximization, which is a mixed-integer program. To make the problem tractable, we investigate the features of the problem and obtain a necessary condition to deploy a charging station and derive the upper and lower bounds of the number of chargers in each station. Given the analysis, we take two steps to transform and relax the problem to convex optimization. A fast-converging search algorithm is further proposed based on the profit of each possible location. Using real vehicle traces, simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can maximize the total profit when fewer charging stations and chargers are initially needed, which is more attractive for charging service providers.