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Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopyis a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons. The basic concepts of EPR are analogous to those of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), but it is electron spins that are excited instead of the spins of atomic nuclei. EPR spectroscopy is particularly useful for studying metal complexes or organic radicals.EPR was first observed in Kazan State University by Soviet physicist Yevgeny Zavoisky in 1944, and was developed independently at the same time by Brebis Bleaney at the University of Oxford. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopyis a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons. The basic concepts of EPR are analogous to those of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), but it is electron spins that are excited instead of the spins of atomic nuclei. EPR spectroscopy is particularly useful for studying metal complexes or organic radicals.EPR was first observed in Kazan State University by Soviet physicist Yevgeny Zavoisky in 1944, and was developed independently at the same time by Brebis Bleaney at the University of Oxford. Every electron has a magnetic moment and spin quantum number s = 1 2 {displaystyle s={ frac {1}{2}}} , with magnetic components m s = + 1 2 {displaystyle m_{mathrm {s} }=+{ frac {1}{2}}} and m s = − 1 2 {displaystyle m_{mathrm {s} }=-{ frac {1}{2}}} . In the presence of an external magnetic field with strength B 0 {displaystyle B_{mathrm {0} }} , the electron's magnetic moment aligns itself either parallel ( m s = − 1 2 {displaystyle m_{mathrm {s} }=-{ frac {1}{2}}} ) or antiparallel ( m s = + 1 2 {displaystyle m_{mathrm {s} }=+{ frac {1}{2}}} ) to the field, each alignment having a specific energy due to the Zeeman effect:

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