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In calculus (a branch of mathematics), a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain. As a result, the graph of a differentiable function must have a (non-vertical) tangent line at each point in its domain, be relatively smooth, and cannot contain any breaks, bends, or cusps. In calculus (a branch of mathematics), a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain. As a result, the graph of a differentiable function must have a (non-vertical) tangent line at each point in its domain, be relatively smooth, and cannot contain any breaks, bends, or cusps. More generally, if x0 is a point in the domain of a function f, then f is said to be differentiable at x0 if the derivative f ′(x0) exists. This means that the graph of f has a non-vertical tangent line at the point (x0, f(x0)). The function f may also be called locally linear at x0, as it can be well approximated by a linear function near this point. A function f : U ⊂ R → R {displaystyle f:Usubset mathbb {R} o mathbb {R} } , defined on an open set U {displaystyle U} , is said to be differentiable at a ∈ U {displaystyle ain U} if any of the following equivalent conditions is satisfied: If f is differentiable at a point x0, then f must also be continuous at x0. In particular, any differentiable function must be continuous at every point in its domain. The converse does not hold: a continuous function need not be differentiable. For example, a function with a bend, cusp, or vertical tangent may be continuous, but fails to be differentiable at the location of the anomaly. Most functions that occur in practice have derivatives at all points or at almost every point. However, a result of Stefan Banach states that the set of functions that have a derivative at some point is a meager set in the space of all continuous functions. Informally, this means that differentiable functions are very atypical among continuous functions. The first known example of a function that is continuous everywhere but differentiable nowhere is the Weierstrass function. A function f is said to be continuously differentiable if the derivative f′(x) exists and is itself a continuous function. Although the derivative of a differentiable function never has a jump discontinuity, it is possible for the derivative to have an essential discontinuity. For example, the function

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