language-icon Old Web
Sign In

Quadratic equation

In algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin quadratus for 'square') is any equation having the form In algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin quadratus for 'square') is any equation having the form where x represents an unknown, and a, b, and c represent known numbers, with a ≠ 0. If a = 0, then the equation is linear, not quadratic, as there is no a x 2 {displaystyle ax^{2}} term. The numbers a, b, and c are the coefficients of the equation and may be distinguished by calling them, respectively, the quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant or free term. The values of x that satisfy the equation are called solutions of the equation, and roots or zeros of its left-hand side. A quadratic equation has at most two solutions. If there is no real solution, there are two complex solutions. If there is only one solution, one says that it is a double root. So a quadratic equation has always two roots, if complex roots are considered, and if a double root is counted for two.If the two solutions are denoted r and s (possibly equal), one has Thus, the process of solving a quadratic equation is also called factorizing or factoring. Completing the square is the standard method for that, which results in the quadratic formula, which express the solutions in terms of a, b, and c. Graphing may also be used for getting an approximate value of the solutions. Solutions to problems that may be expressed in terms of quadratic equations were known as early as 2000 BC. Because the quadratic equation involves only one unknown, it is called 'univariate'. The quadratic equation only contains powers of x that are non-negative integers, and therefore it is a polynomial equation. In particular, it is a second-degree polynomial equation, since the greatest power is two. A quadratic equation with real or complex coefficients has two solutions, called roots. These two solutions may or may not be distinct, and they may or may not be real. It may be possible to express a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 as a product (px + q)(rx + s) = 0. In some cases, it is possible, by simple inspection, to determine values of p, q, r, and s that make the two forms equivalent to one another. If the quadratic equation is written in the second form, then the 'Zero Factor Property' states that the quadratic equation is satisfied if px + q = 0 or rx + s = 0. Solving these two linear equations provides the roots of the quadratic. For most students, factoring by inspection is the first method of solving quadratic equations to which they are exposed.:202–207 If one is given a quadratic equation in the form x2 + bx + c = 0, the sought factorization has the form (x + q)(x + s), and one has to find two numbers q and s that add up to b and whose product is c (this is sometimes called 'Vieta's rule' and is related to Vieta's formulas). As an example, x2 + 5x + 6 factors as (x + 3)(x + 2). The more general case where a does not equal 1 can require a considerable effort in trial and error guess-and-check, assuming that it can be factored at all by inspection. Except for special cases such as where b = 0 or c = 0, factoring by inspection only works for quadratic equations that have rational roots. This means that the great majority of quadratic equations that arise in practical applications cannot be solved by factoring by inspection.:207

[ "Applied mathematics", "Algebra", "Mathematical optimization", "Mathematical analysis", "Geometry", "quadratic map", "Ideal class group", "Bianchi group", "quadratic space", "Biquadratic field" ]
Parent Topic
Child Topic
    No Parent Topic