Model-Agnostic Explainability for Visual Search.
What makes two images similar? We propose new approaches to generate model-agnostic explanations for image similarity, search, and retrieval. In particular, we extend Class Activation Maps (CAMs), Additive Shapley Explanations (SHAP), and Locally Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations (LIME) to the domain of image retrieval and search. These approaches enable black and grey-box model introspection and can help diagnose errors and understand the rationale behind a model's similarity judgments. Furthermore, we extend these approaches to extract a full pairwise correspondence between the query and retrieved image pixels, an approach we call "joint interpretations". Formally, we show joint search interpretations arise from projecting Harsanyi dividends, and that this approach generalizes Shapley Values and The Shapley-Taylor indices. We introduce a fast kernel-based method for estimating Shapley-Taylor indices and empirically show that these game-theoretic measures yield more consistent explanations for image similarity architectures.