Several typical endocrine-disrupting chemicals in human urine from general population in China: Regional and demographic-related differences in exposure risk.
Abstract Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous in the environment, and human exposure to these pollutants has caused great public concern. Five groups of EDCs, including parabens, antimicrobials (triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC)), bisphenols (BPs), tetrabromobisphenol A and its alternatives (TBBPAs), and benzophenones, in urines of general populations from three cities with different economic levels in China were determined simultaneously to evaluate the coexposure levels of such chemicals. The total concentration of target compounds was approximately two times higher in the urines from Chengdu (a first-tier city; geometric mean: 2.50 μg/L) than that from Nantong (a second-tier city; 1.34 μg/L), and was one order of magnitude higher than that from Shehong (a fifth-tier city; 0.73 μg/L). Urinary target compounds were significantly correlated with gender, age, body mass index (BMI), education level, occupation, and diet. The estimated daily intakes of target chemicals ranged from 0.002 (benzophenones) to 10.2 µg/kg-bw/day (parabens). The exposure estimate showed that females were more vulnerable to exposure to these EDCs. This study profiles the regional and demographic-related differences in the concentrations and exposure risks of several typical EDCs in urines from general populations in three cities with different economic levels in China.