Multi-Wavelength approach for detecting and characterizing young quasars i: Systemic redshifts and proximity zones measurements

In a multi-wavelength survey of $13$ quasars at $5.8\lesssim z\lesssim6.5$, we find five objects with extremely small proximity zone sizes that may imply UV-luminous lifetimes of $\lesssim 100,000$ years. Proximity zones are regions of enhanced transmitted flux in the vicinity of the quasars that are sensitive to the quasars' lifetimes because the intergalactic gas has a finite response time to their radiation. We combine sub-mm observations from the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) and the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA), as well as deep optical and near-infrared spectra from medium-resolution spectrographs on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and on the Keck telescopes, in order to identify and characterize these new young quasars, which provide valuable clues about the accretion behavior of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the early universe, and pose challenges on current black hole formation models to explain the rapid formation of billion solar mass black holes. We measure the quasars' systemic redshifts, black hole masses, Eddington ratios, emission line luminosities, and star formation rates of their host galaxies. Combined with previous results we estimate the fraction of young objects within the high-redshift quasar population at large to be $5\%\lesssim f_{\rm young}\lesssim 9\%$. One of these objects, PSOJ158-14, shows one of the brightest [$\rm C\,II$] emission lines ($F_{\rm line}=7.18\pm 0.33\,\rm mJy$) observed to date in high-redshift quasars, and thus indicates a highly star-bursting host galaxy with a star formation rate of approximately $1200\,M_{\odot}\,\rm yr^{-1}$.
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