High-throughput whole-brain mapping of rhesus monkey at micron resolution

Whole-brain mesoscale mapping of primates has been hindered by large brain size and the relatively low throughput of available microscopy methods. Here, we present an integrative approach that combines primate-optimized tissue sectioning and clearing with ultrahigh-speed, large-scale, volumetric fluorescence microscopy, capable of completing whole-brain imaging of a rhesus monkey at 1 μm × 1 μm × 2.5 μm voxel resolution within 100 hours. A progressive strategy is developed for high-efficiency, long-range tracing of individual axonal fibers through the dataset of hundreds of terabytes, establishing a "Serial sectioning and clearing, 3-dimensional Microscopy, with semi-Automated Reconstruction and Tracing" (SMART) pipeline. This system supports effective connectome-scale mapping of large primates that reveals distinct features of thalamocortical projections of the rhesus monkey brain at the level of individual axonal fibers.
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