Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the soil-plant system: Sorption, root uptake, and translocation.
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in the environment but pose potential risks to ecosystems and human health. The soil-plant system plays an important role in the bioaccumulation of PFASs. Because most PFASs in the natural environment are anionic and amphiphilic (both lipophilic and hydrophilic), their sorption and accumulation behaviors differ from those of neutral organic and common ionic compounds. In this review, we discuss processes affecting the availability of PFASs in soil after analyzing the potential mechanisms underlying the sorption and uptake of PFASs in the soil-plant system. We also summarize the current knowledge on root uptake and translocation of PFASs in plants. We found that the root concentration factor of PFASs for plants grown in soil was not significantly correlated with hydrophobicity, whereas the translocation factor was significantly and negatively correlated with PFAS hydrophobicity regardless of whether plants were grown hydroponically or in soil. Further research on the cationic, neutral, and zwitterionic forms of diverse PFASs is urgently needed to comprehensively understand the environmental fates of PFASs in the soil-plant system. Additional research directions are suggested, including the development of more accurate models and techniques to evaluate the bioavailability of PFASs, the effects of root exudates and rhizosphere microbiota on the bioavailability and plant uptake of PFASs, and the roles of different plant organelles, lipids, and proteins in the accumulation of PFASs by plants.