Detection and removal of waterborne enteric viruses from wastewater: A comprehensive review
Abstract Waterborne enteric viruses that are commonly found in wastewater can cause several sporadic cases of diseases and outbreaks as a result of water or food contamination. Their detection, quantification, and effective removal from wastewater is of great importance. In this context, this review paper describes the different types of waterborne enteric viruses that are frequently found in wastewater and evaluated the various techniques developed for their concentration and detection. Furthermore, the review comprehensively discusses the different traditional, membrane filtration, and advanced/hybrid technologies used in the removal of these viruses. Over the past few decades, several efforts have been made to employ the membrane-based and other hybrid technologies to eliminate waterborne enteric viruses effectively. In this regard, technologies, such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), membrane bioreactor (MBR) among others, have been widely applied. The major concerns related to these technologies are in the factors that would have an impact on membrane performance in terms of viruses' removal efficiency and sustainable operation. The advantages, limitations, and other related factors of the application of these technologies will be discussed in this review. Lastly, Light will be shed on the future perspectives and research opportunities for the widespread implementation of these technologies in the treatment of viruses-rich wastewater.