The association between neighborhood built environment and health-related fitness: a systematic review protocol.
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to summarize the current literature on the associations between the neighborhood built environment and components of health-related fitness. The findings may be useful for policymakers and practitioners to inform the development of health-supportive neighborhood built environments. INTRODUCTION There is accumulating evidence linking neighborhood built environments to health behaviors, including physical activity and chronic health conditions, yet little is known about the potential links between the built environment and health-related fitness. Although physical activity and health-related fitness are intimately linked, health-related fitness is thought to be a more proximate and stronger correlate to health. Understanding how the built environment influences health-related fitness will better allow for health-promoting urban design and population-level interventions. INCLUSION CRITERIA Published and unpublished evidence will be included if it has a quantitative component and sample adults aged 18 years or older, with no physical disabilities or health issues that may impact health-related fitness. The exposure variables of interest are objectively measured and self-reported neighborhood built characteristics. The outcome variables of interest are objectively measured and self-reported components of health-related fitness (ie, morphological, muscular, motor, and cardiorespiratory fitness). METHODS We will follow the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Databases used in the search will include MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, Environment Complete, and TRID with no date or language restrictions. Study quality will be assessed using the appraisal tools from JBI. A narrative approach will be used to synthesize study findings; if data permits, a meta-analysis will be completed. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER PROSPERO CRD42020179807.