Hybrid Active and Passive Sensing for SLAM in Wireless Communication Systems

Integrating sensing functions into future mobile equipment has become an important trend. Realizing different types of sensing and achieving mutual enhancement under the existing communication hardware architecture is a crucial challenge in realizing the deep integration of sensing and communication. In the 5G New Radio context, active sensing can be performed through uplink beam sweeping on the user equipment (UE) side to observe the surrounding environment. In addition, the UE can perform passive sensing through downlink channel estimation to measure the multipath component (MPC) information. This study is the first to develop a hybrid simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) mechanism that combines active and passive sensing, in which mutual enhancement between the two sensing modes is realized in communication systems. Specifically, we first establish a common feature associated with the reflective surface to bridge active and passive sensing, thus enabling information fusion. Based on the common feature, we can attain physical anchor initialization through MPC with the assistance of active sensing. Then, we extend the classic probabilistic data association SLAM mechanism to achieve UE localization and continuously refine the physical anchor and target reflections through the subsequent passive sensing. Numerical results show that the proposed hybrid active and passive sensing-based SLAM mechanism can work successfully in tricky scenarios without any prior information on the floor plan, anchors, or agents. Moreover, the proposed algorithm demonstrates significant performance gains compared with active or passive sensing only mechanisms.
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