Self-Supervised Deep Learning for Nonlinear Seismic Full Waveform Inversion

Seismic full-waveform inversion (FWI) is able to build high-resolution velocity model based on the full information carried by seismic wave. However, FWI requires an accurate enough initial model to ensure convergence. In this article, we propose a new nonlinear FWI method to mitigate the initial model dependence problem. Specifically, we first propose a nonlinear operator within the hybrid model- and data-driven framework based on the frequency controllable envelope operator (FCEO) and a deep learning (DL) architecture U-Net. FCEO is used to obtain the envelope of a band-limited data and U-Net realizes the mapping from this envelope to that corresponding to a lower frequency band. The U-Net is trained in a self-supervised manner that avoids the reliance on labeled data and benefits the generalization ability. Based on the nonlinear operator, a nonlinear FWI method is proposed by defining a new misfit function. In addition, the calculation of gradient is derived using the adjoint state method. Using numerical examples, we investigate the performance of the proposed nonlinear operator and the new nonlinear FWI method. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed nonlinear operator is effective in obtaining low-frequency envelope data, and the new nonlinear FWI method has advantages over common method in mitigating cycle-skipping and building an initial model for conventional FWI.
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