Borneol influences the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol through regulation of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), CYP2C11, CYP3A1, and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA expression levels in rats.

Borneol is a traditional Chinese medicine. In Chinese veterinary clinics, borneol and its related compounds are often used in combination with florfenicol to treat respiratory infections. This study investigated whether the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in rats was affected by its concomitant use with borneol. Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically administered borneol (50 mg/kg body weight (BW)) or 0.5% carboxymethyl-cellulose sodium for 7 consecutive days, and then intragastrically administered florfenicol (25 mg/kg BW) on the eighth day. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that borneol significantly decreased the area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-t)), time to reach peak concentration (Tmax), and the peak concentration (Cmax) values of florfenicol, whereas the values of mean residence time from zero to infinity (MRT(0-t)), elimination half-life (t1/2z), apparent volume of distribution fraction of the dose absorbed (Vz), and plasma clearance fraction of the dose absorbed (CLz) were increased significantly. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and cytochrome P450 3A1 (CYP3A1) in the jejunum and of CYP1A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were significantly upregulated by borneol. In conclusion, borneol decreased absorption, increased clearance, improved distribution, and increased the mean residence time of florfenicol in rats, possibly through regulating the mRNA expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters.
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