Microwave-assisted gasification of biomass for sustainable and energy-efficient biohydrogen and biosyngas production: A state-of-the-art review.
Abstract Biohydrogen and biosyngas are among the sustainable bioenergy products from biomass resources through gasification. Microwave-assisted gasification (MAG) is still a novel technology, but it is definitely a promising conversion technology to achieve a sustainable bioeconomy. Although this technology shows a massive potential to be fully implemented in the near future, the selectivity and efficiency of biohydrogen and syngas production still need enhancements and further research to secure a cost-effective and energy-efficient industrialization. This article comprehensively reviews the regular, microwave-induced plasma, and catalytic MAG systems in relation to their biohydrogen and biosyngas production, carbon conversion efficiency, and tar removal while discussing the significance of optimal operating conditions and considerations in the gasification system design. Several perspectives such as benefits, challenges, numerical simulations, and scalable opportunities are also explored to provide factual insights for further research and industrial application.