Long-Term Clinical Impact of Cardiogenic Shock and Heart Failure on Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Long-term clinical outcomes among patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) and heart failure (HF) who survive the early phase of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain uncertain. We investigated 3283 consecutive patients with AMI, selected from a prospective, nation-wide multicenter registry (J-MINUET) database comprising 28 institutions in Japan between July 2012 and March 2014. The 3263 eligible patients were divided into the following three groups: CS-/HF- group (n = 2467, 75.6%); CS-/HF+ group (n = 479, 14.7%); and CS+ group (n = 317, 9.7%). The thirty-day mortality rate in CS+ patients was 32.8%, significantly higher than in CS- patients. Among CS+ patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified statin use before admission (Odds ratio (OR) 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.66, P = 0.002), renal deficiency (OR 8.72, 95%CI 2.81-38.67, P < 0.0001) and final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.18-0.99, P = 0.046) were associated with 30-day mortality. Landmark Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that mortality rates after 30 days were comparable between CS+ and CS-/HF+ groups but were lower in the CS-/HF- group. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis also showed that hazard risk of mortality after 30 days was comparable between the CS+ and CS-/HF+ groups (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.03, 95%CI 0.63-1.68, P = 0.90), and significantly lower in the CS-/HF- group (HR 0.44, 95%CI 0.32-059, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, AMI patients with CS who survived 30 days experienced worse long-term outcomes compared with those without CS up to 3 years. Attention is required for patients who show HF on admission without CS to improve long-term AMI outcomes.
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