Lignocellulosic biomass derived N-doped and CoO-loaded carbocatalyst used as highly efficient peroxymonosulfate activator for ciprofloxacin degradation

Abstract Burning lignocellulosic biomass wastes in an outdoor atmosphere has placed heavy burden on ecological environment and increased risk on human health. Converting solid agricultural wastes into functional materials is a research hotspot. In this study, N-doped and CoO-loaded carbocatalyst (CoO-N/BC) was successfully synthesized from the cotton stalk biomass via a simple synthesis process of impregnation and carbonization. Compared with cotton stalk biomass derived pristine biochar, the CoO-N/BC possessed a higher specific surface area (466.631 m2 g-1 vs 286.684 m2 g-1) as well as a better catalytic performance in the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for CIP degradation. The superior catalytic efficiency was ascribed to the directional flow of electrons on the well-organized carbon network of CoO-N/BC, which accelerated electron migration and improved electron conduction ability. Based on the results of radical quenching experiment and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), both radical and non-radical process conjointly led to the stepwise decomposition of CIP, and singlet oxygen (1O2) mediated non-radical pathway was discovered to play a dominant role. Besides, the carbon-bridge mediated non-radical pathway was proved to accelerate this degradation process through the experiments of prolong the time of adding CIP at different time intervals. Nitrogen doped sites and CoO active sites as well as defects formed in sp2-hybridized carbon network were supposed to be the active sites for PMS. Furthermore, EIS and LSV were employed to confirm the electron transfer mediated non-radical process of reaction system. This work provides a modified strategy for the disposition of lignocellulosic biomass wastes and illuminates the underlying mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis by CoO-N/BC.
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