The ALPINE-ALMA [CII] Survey: Kinematic Diversity & Rotation in Massive Star Forming Galaxies at z~4.4-5.9.

Over the past decades, the kinematics of galaxies in the local Universe and at intermediate redshift (i.e., z~1-3) have been characterized in great detail, but only a handful of galaxies at high redshift (z>4) have been examined in such a way. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE) survey observed 118 star-forming main sequence galaxies at z=4.4-5.9 in [CII]158um emission, increasing the number of such observations by nearly an order of magnitude. To characterize the morpho-kinematics of this sample, we apply a well-tested tilted ring model fitting code (3DBarolo), a quantitative morphological classification (Gini-M20), and a set of disk identification criteria to the ALPINE data. By exploring the G-M20 of z>4 rest-frame FIR and [CII] data for the first time, we find that our 1"~6kpc resolution is insufficient to separate galaxy types based solely on these data. Of the 75 [CII]-detected ALPINE galaxies, 29 are detected at high enough significance and with sufficient spatial resolution to allow for tilted ring model fitting and the derivation of morpho-kinematic parameters. By combining these results with disk identification criteria, we are able to robustly classify 14 of the 29 fit sources (six rotators, five mergers, and three dispersion-dominated systems), with the remaining sources showing complex behaviour. We then compare the rotation curves and dynamical mass profiles of the six ALPINE rotators to the two previously detected z~4-6 unlensed main sequence rotators, finding high rotational velocities (~50-250km/s) and a range of rotation curve shapes.
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