Cephalometric Landmark Detection by AttentiveFeature Pyramid Fusion and Regression-Voting.

Marking anatomical landmarks in cephalometric radiography is a critical operation in cephalometric analysis. Automatically and accurately locating these landmarks is a challenging issue because different landmarks require different levels of resolution and semantics. Based on this observation, we propose a novel attentive feature pyramid fusion module (AFPF) to explicitly shape high-resolution and semantically enhanced fusion features to achieve significantly higher accuracy than existing deep learning-based methods. We also combine heat maps and offset maps to perform pixel-wise regression-voting to improve detection accuracy. By incorporating the AFPF and regression-voting, we develop an end-to-end deep learning framework that improves detection accuracy by 7%~11% for all the evaluation metrics over the state-of-the-art method. We present ablation studies to give more insights into different components of our method and demonstrate its generalization capability and stability for unseen data from diverse devices.
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