Post hoc analysis of two clinical trials to compare the immunogenicity and safety of different polio immunization schedules in Chinese infants

2021 
Background A comparative analysis of the immunogenicity and safety of different poliovirus immunization schedules in Chinese infants is imperative to guide the administration of efficient strategies for the eradication of poliomyelitis. Methods A post hoc analysis was conducted with the data from two poliovirus vaccine clinical trials involving a combined total of 2,400 infants aged 60-90 days. Trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV), Sabin strain-based inactivated poliovirus vaccine (sIPV), and conventional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (cIPV) were used in different schedules, the immunogenicity and safety of which were compared 28 days after the last of three doses. Results In a per-protocol set analysis, the tOPV-tOPV-tOPV schedule induced seroconversion in 99.1%, 98.2%, and 96.0% of the inoculated infants for poliovirus type I, II, and III, respectively. The seroconversions for poliovirus types I and III were each almost 100% after immunization with the cIPV-bOPV-bOPV, sIPV-sIPV-bOPV, cIPV-cIPV-bOPV, sIPV-sIPV-tOPV, cIPV-cIPV-tOPV, or sIPV-bOPV-bOPV schedule. However, the schedules that used one IPV dose followed by two (poliovirus type I and III) bOPV doses failed to induce high-level immunity against type II poliovirus. IPV-related schedules were associated with a slightly higher incidence of adverse events (AEs). Conclusions If the capacity of IPV can be increased, two or more doses of IPV should be administered before vaccination with bOPV in a sequential schedule to improve immunity against type II poliovirus.
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