Polymicrogyria in a child with KCNMA1-related channelopathy
Abstract Back ground Polymicrogyria is a malformation of cortical development with overfolding of the cerebral cortex and abnormal cortical layering. Polymicrogyria constitutes a heterogenous collection of neuroimaging features, neuropathological findings, and clinical associations, and is due to multiple underlying etiologies. In the last few years, some glutamate and sodium channelopathies have been associated with cortical brain malformations such as polymicrogyria. The potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M alpha 1 (KCNMA1) gene encodes each of the four alpha-subunits that make up the large conductance calcium and voltage-activated potassium channel “Big K+”. KCNMA1-related channelopathies are associated with various neurological abnormalities, including epilepsy, ataxia, paroxysmal dyskinesias, developmental delay and cognitive disorders. Case report We report the observation of a patient who presented since the age of two months with drug-resistant epilepsy with severe developmental delay initially related to bilateral asymmetric frontal polymicrogyria. Later, exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous variation in the KCNMA1 gene (c.112delG) considered pathogenic. Conclusion This first case of polymicrogyria associated with KCNMA1-related channelopathy may expand the phenotypic spectrum of KCNMA1-related channelopathies and enrich the recently identified group of developmental channelopathies with polymicrogyria.